My Perspective of Patch 6.13

Patch 6.13 was launched few hours ago, and this might be one of the most support influential patches in recent history. For long, the support meta was hovering around carry champions like Blitzcrank and Zyra. This patch might be the end of a chapter.
Season 6 patch 13 brought nerfs to many meta relevant or over-powered champions like Blitz, Zyra, Vladimir, Kindred just to mention a few. The nerf to Blitzcrank ultimate might be addressed to top lane Blitz, but it sure affects him in the bottom lane as well. Some people say that the ultimate was not used every minute anyway, but it sure limits his roams to mid-lane and top. Kindred lost 7 armor, clear death threat to her. The last champion that got such a nerf was J4rvan, and he hasn’t been seen as a strong champion in ages.
Now after our condolences, lets hop onto the interesting part. The changes to Talisman of Ascension and its constituents. This item will form the meta with regards to supports. If we look at the stats we can see why:
Coin line changes.jpg
  • Increased cooldown reduction
  • Increased armor
  • Increased health regen
  • Decreased mana regen
  • Speed up around towers & gates
If you disregard the mana regeneration debuff, they are all great positives, favouring the likes of Thresh, Soraka, Janna and Taric. These of course are my predictions. I can see Lulu coming back on the rift with the recent changes while Tahm Kench will be more difficult to play but rewarding once mastered. 
Together with the buffs to shields and heals on certain items like Ardent Censer and Michael’s Crucible, champions with synergistic skills and utility are buffed. Janna and Nami are the first two that come to mind, but there is always Soraka.
Only time will tell what this patch will bring with it but it is sure much more exciting for supports.
Hurray, finally a patch where the underdogs (a.k.a. supports) shine.
Link to the full patch notes HERE

Top 5 Basic Overwatch Player Tips



Since its launch, the hit first-person shooter game Overwatch has attracted more than 10 million players. You, too, may want to join in — or you already have been playing and are just looking to get an edge on the competition. Regardless of your experience, there are a few things you should probably know. Though simple, these five basic tips are efficient and will help you and your team come out of battle with countless victories.




Honestly, it’s kind of shocking that Blizzard hasn’t made the kill feed a feature that’s automatically on from the get-go. If you don’t have it on, do so. This live feed in the upper right-hand corner gives you a visual of who’s dying in the game. Knowing when all of your teammates have been eliminated can keep you from going in as a one-man army on the prowl for his/her own death. You don’t want to be that one player on the team that trickles in thinking they can save the match on their own. Overwatch is a team-based game, and with the kill feed on, you can keep tabs on your team at all times.



It can be easy in the heat of the battle to forget to reload, especially when an enemy is on the last of their health and you need to think fast. This is why it’s a good habit to finish off enemies with melee when in close combat. Depending on your character choosing to reload could lead to an enemy trapping you or an enemy teammate swooping in to get the kill for themselves. Fire off your rounds and finish with a punch and, more often than not, you’ll find yourself with a kill.



You might be confident before the game starts that a certain character is going to be perfect for a particular battle. You may then find that you’re getting slaughtered shortly after it begins. Know when to switch. With 21 different characters to choose from, building a team with members that complement each other is crucial. Building a team that offsets the enemy teams’ abilities is equally as important. You might want to wait to power up an ultimate ability or give it one more shot with a particular character, but oftentimes another character could be more useful for your team. Again, know when to switch. Help your team by giving them the support they need. Help yourself and adopt a new strategy to come out with a victory.



While it can be particularly easy to take notice of Overwatch’s creative art style, it’s also important as a player looking to become better to take note of it’s many sounds. Enemy sounds throughout the game are generally louder. If you hear footsteps that means it’s time to put your guard up. Each character will also sound their own chime when powering off their ultimate, so stay cautious if you hear it’s high noon. This means get out of McCree’s sight to avoid a devastating shot to the head. Listening to the game will make you just as effective as what you’re seeing does and can ultimately be what saves you from many deaths.


Everybody wants to get play of the game but not everybody wants to put in the work to come out with a victory. Use your ultimates when you have them, not only when it’s convenient for a spectacular show. Every elimination counts, and sometimes when you can’t reload and you have an ultimate when playing one-on-one, that ultimate will keep you alive. So use it. Time spent running around with an ultimate in your pocket is time wasted that could be spent loading another ultimate to use. Just keep calm and use your ultimates when you have them and you’re teammates will thank you for staying alive and adding a kill.

Demystifying Modern Sorcery (Coding)

90s kids thought that this was what programming looked like…
Coding (or programming/black magic/delete as appropriate) is one of those things everyone talks about, acknowledges that everyone needs to know something about, but barely anyone actually does. Coders have this weirdly conflicting aura; they are the kingmakers, modern day sorcerers who, with seemingly an incomprehensible wave of the hand, can conjure a piece of software out of thin air, and in many cases, a billion dollar IPO at the blink of an eye. Yet at the same time, there persists the stigma of a loner nerd with dark rings under his eyes, eliciting vast worlds from his fingertips yet barely able to keep a conversation going after the first sentence. Is this image problem accurate in these days of teenage billionaires?
Some time ago, I started thinking that I should learn how to code because one thing is clear in 2016; much of how the modern world works depends on lines of code and people with the ability to create it. Unfortunately, perhaps the combination of its seemingly high barrier to entry (do I need to be brilliant at maths? Do I have to be a savant? Those numbers and symbols and colons look scary) coupled with the aforementioned image problem might be a little off-putting for many, despite the almost limitless job prospects and high salaries.
I have no problem being around nerds since I am one myself, so that poindexter cliche never mattered to me anyway. Coding, though, was something I always presumed was forever out of my reach. It just looked so alien, like descending into an ancient cave and stumbling upon some lost civilisation’s hieroglyphics. Code is a pure kind of distillation of logic, and our common spoken/written languages rarely adhere to logic because they’ve been devised, deconstructed, remodelled and butchered according to our needs over thousands of years. Coding languages do not undergo this process of entanglement, but iterate based on what might make it simple work better or more elegantly, and always with its end game (i.e. whatever it was designed to work with, whether that’s an ugly database or a lovely piece of software with a beautiful GUI).
…and this was what a hacker looked like
It was this article from Lifehacker that made want to give it a go, so I took its advice and plunged headfirst into Zed Shaw’s freely available book, deceptively titled ‘Learn Python the Hard Way’. Shaw’s withering, no-nonsense approach to the fundamentals of code has allowed me to drop all the fear and magical thinking I had built up about what is essentially an exercise in learning to apply logic, problem solve, and become adept at proof reading my own work. Yes, it gets increasingly difficult and complex the deeper you go, as with any new skill, but Shaw manages to be both a reassuring and strict master, telling us not to worry if a piece of code makes no sense right now, but reserving no sympathy for anyone who tries to shortcut their way through it either.
I can look at a clump of python code and at least have a grasp at what it’s trying to achieve. I mightn’t be quite ready to churn out the next Windows, but I’ve passed that sticky point where it all seemed crazy hard and confusing to  feeling like I actually know what I’m doing. I remember watching this video about why people should learn to code, and Gabe Newell recalls the first time he ran a piece of code that produced the words ‘Hello World’ onto a console. That tiny spark of creation is the magic inside code at work, and if you want to think of it that way then I would recommend reading this article on why coding is so often compared with magic, which hints that computer code may provide more clues as to the nature of reality than we think.
Here are some great resources for fearful coding n00bs like me:
  • ‘Learn Python the Hard Way’ by Zed Shaw, available for free here
  • Code Academy, which offers free courses on many languages with an easy to follow, gamified learning system.
  • Google’s Python Class
  • Github – a repository for programmers to store and share their open source code with the world. Worth a rummage to find beginners’ projects, figure out what others are up to, or just see what kinds of things are possible
It might take years to become a whizz kid programmer extraordinaire (at which point i’ll be more likely nicknamed something like ‘that old whizz man’), but my point is that learning enough to at least know what the hell is making everything happen is nowhere near as abstract as you had built it up to be.

Saw Gerrera in Rogue One: A Star Wars Story

In the deluge of Entertainment Weekly’s Rogue One: A Star Wars Story reveals this week, one of the most interesting details so far is who Forest Whitaker is playing.

You may remember that it was reported that Forest Whitaker was playing a character named “Castro,” and due to the name, was theorized to be somewhat of a Fidel Castro-like figure in attitude or position. Today, Entertainment Weekly revealed the character is Saw Gerrera from Star Wars: The Clone Wars, who was written like Che Guevara. It’s all making sense.
So, who is Saw Gerrera? He’s one of the Onderon rebels that helped lead the resistance to victory over the Confederacy of Independent Systems on Onderon.
For more details on Saw, head on over to, and check out the video below:
Go and check out the extensive story about Saw on Entertainment Weekly, and do your prep for Rogue One by watching the following Star Wars: The Clone Warsseason five episodes on Netflix!
  • A War on Two Fronts
  • Front Runners
  • The Soft War
  • Tipping Points

Google and Udacity partner for Android New Nanodegree course

Google and Udacity are teaming up again, this time for an Android Basics course that will earn you a Nanodegree.
The two companies have partnered before for Android Nanodegree programs, but this one is meant for those who are starting from absolute scratch: no coding experience required.
Like the other Android Nanodegree programs, students learn directly from Google staffers. It offers the same mentorship and code review as any other Nanodegree program, too.
the program teaches the basics of Java, as well as how to interact with Web APIs. Students also learn how to interact with a SQLite database.
The first 50 students who graduate the course will earn a scholarship toward the rest of the Android Nanodegree career track. If you’re interested, Udacity is accepting enrollments starting today.

Spacetime Diagram

The spacetime diagram (“a position vs time graph”) is a valuable tool for modeling and interpreting situations in relativity. As I like to say, “A spacetime diagram is worth a thousand words.” Many problems and “apparent-paradoxes” (or better “puzzles”) can be resolved by drawing a good spacetime diagram. However, because Minkowski spacetime geometry is not Euclidean, there is a hurdle to interpreting the spacetime diagram. As Alfred Schild eloquently stated,

“When it comes to metrical concepts, our Euclidean intuition is no longer valid in space-time—it cannot be trusted. Here we have to re-educate our intuition and learn to think in terms of new pictures. Thus, equal lengths in Minkowski geometry will not look equal, right angles will not look like right angles.”

(Side comment: Before we get into special relativity, it is worth noting that PHY 101’s “position vs time graph” also has a underlying geometry that is not Euclidean. However, practically everybody has learned to read the position-vs-time graph—without knowing anything about this geometry. To help students better understand special relativity, we may have to become more aware of this geometry… but that’s a story for another day.)

Where are the tickmarks?

Although we may be given the tickmarks of the inertial observer drawing the spacetime diagram, a common question is “how does one know where to mark off the ticks of another observer’s clock and meterstick?” More precisely, “given a standard of time marked on an observer’s worldline, how does one calibrate the same standard on the other observer’s worldline?”
Traditionally, this is answered algebraically using the Lorentz Transformation formulas… which is rather abstract for a novice. Geometrically, one may use two-observer diagrams or hyperbolic graph paper—which are rather restrictive. [We use the usual conventions where the time axis is vertical and where the units are chosen so that light signals are drawn at 45 degrees.] The two-observer diagram can only accommodate two frames of reference, and the diagram must be prepared for the velocity of the “moving” frame (here, <span class="MathJax" data-mathml="vBob=3/5″ id=”MathJax-Element-1-Frame” role=”presentation” style=”position: relative;” tabindex=”0″>vBob=3/5vBob=3/5). The hyperbolic graph paper can handle more general velocities, but distinguishes the meeting event at the “origin”. For simple problems, either of these is probably sufficient. But what features are they emphasizing? Are these unnecessarily complicated? Unnecessarily expensive?

We propose a new type of graph paper—actually, a new use of plain old graph paper:
Rotated Graph Paper.
The grid lines are aligned with the light cones in spacetime. So, light signals are easier to draw.

But how do we get the 4 ticks along Bob’s worldline that we get from the other graph papers? The paper uses a physical argument based on the Doppler Effect and Bondi’s k-calculus. Here, we will use a geometrical argument (also found in the paper).

Diagramming Alice’s ticking Light Clock with “Clock Diamonds”

We begin the construction by interpreting the unit boxes in the rotated grid. Consider an inertial observer, Alice, at rest in her reference frame, carrying a mirror a constant distance away. Alice emits a light flash (traveling with speed c) that reflects off the distant mirror and returns (at speed c) to her after a round-trip elapsed time. If this returning light flash is immediately reflected back, this functions like a clock, called the light clock.
On the rotated grid, we draw the spacetime diagram of Alice and two such mirrors, one to the right (the direction in which Alice faces) and the other to the left. The parallelogram OMTN represents one tick of Alice’s longitudinal light clock, where the spatial trajectories of the light signals are parallel to the direction of relative motion. Henceforth, we will refer to this parallelogram as Alice’s “clock diamond.”
By tiling spacetime with copies of her clock diamond, Alice sets up a coordinate system. She measures displacements in time along a parallel to her worldline (along diagonal OT, which happens to be vertical on our rotated grid). She measures displacements in space along her “line of constant time” (parallel to diagonal MN, which happens to be horizontal on our rotated grid). According to Alice, events M and N are simultaneous. Lightlike displacements are measured parallel to the edges of her clock diamond.

Building Bob’s Clock Diamonds

Now consider another inertial observer Bob. For convenience, suppose <span class="MathJax" data-mathml="vBob=3/5″ id=”MathJax-Element-2-Frame” role=”presentation” style=”position: relative;” tabindex=”0″>vBob=3/5vBob=3/5.
How should Bob’s light clock and clock diamonds be drawn?
This is the Calibration Problem.
Given Alice’s worldline and one tick of Alice’s clock (clock diamond OMTN), how should one draw event F on Bob’s worldline so that timelike segment OF corresponds to one tick on Bob’s clock (clock diamond OYFZ)?

It turns out that
Bob’s clock diamond OYFZ
has the same area as
Alice’s clock diamond OMTN.

Geometrically, this is because events T and F lie on a hyperbola centered at O with asymptotes along the light cone of O. (Refer to the paper for physical arguments based on the Doppler Effect and Bondi’s k-calculus.)
By subdividing the grid (into, say, a 6 x 6 subgrid) and drawing analogous clock diamonds with the same area, you can glimpse the unit hyperbola.
The velocity of a clock in this spacetime diagram is encoded by the width-to-height “aspect ratio” of its clock diamond. So, for Bob, we have:
Note that events Y and Z of Bob’s clock diamond OYFZ are simultaneous for Bob—but not for Alice. This is the “relativity of simultaneity.” In the geometry of the spacetime diagram, diagonal YZ is [spacetime-]perpendicular to diagonal OF, even though it may not look so to a Euclidean eye.

Visualizing Time Dilation and the Clock Effect (Twin Paradox)

With Bob’s clock diamonds determined, we can now construct the 4 ticks along Bob’s worldline that one obtains in the two-observer graph paper and hyperbolic graph paper. This triangle visualizes “time dilation”: Bob determines the elapsed time from O to Q (events on his worldline) to be 4 ticks, whereas Alice determines the elapsed time from O to distant event Q (Q, not on her worldline) to be 5 ticks.

(Side comment: We have highlighted a parallelogram in the grid with diagonal OQ, which we refer to as the “causal diamond” of OQ. The area of that causal diamond is equal to the square of the time interval from O to Q. This suggests another, more powerful method to construct Bob’s clock diamonds if we know that OQ is along Bob’s worldline. Refer to the paper for details.)

We can easily extend this diagram to visualize the “clock effect”, featured in the so-called twin paradox. Inertial observer Alice stays at home and logs 10 ticks between separation and reunion events O and Z, whereas Bob (a piecewise-inertial—but now a non-inertial—observer since he momentarily accelerated at Q to turn around and return to Alice) logs 4+4=8 ticks from events O to Z via Q, not on inertial segment OZ.

The Clock Effect visualized
Note that there are three inertial reference frames displayed here: Alice, outbound-Bob, and inbound-Bob. This is not easily constructed on the two-observer graph paper or on the hyperbolic graph paper, especially if Bob’s inbound speed if different from Bob’s outbound speed. (Note that the subdivided grid which displayed a glimpse of the unit hyperbola displayed clock diamonds for nine inertial reference frames.)

Final comments

Hopefully this construction makes it easier to draw, interpret, and calculate with spacetime diagrams. So, let’s draw them! Refer to the paper for details of this method, other textbook examples (length contraction, velocity composition, elastic collisions), and its relation to other methods (radar methods, Bondi k-calculus, Robb’s formula, standard textbook formulas).

Further Reading

“Relativity on rotated graph paper,” Roberto B. Salgado,
Am. J. Phys. 84, 344-359 (2016);
[see also the references within]

“The Clock Paradox in Relativity Theory,” Alfred Schild,
Am. Math. Monthly, 66, 1-18 (Jan., 1959);

Relativity and Common Sense, Hermann Bondi (Dover, 1962).
“Space-time intervals as light rectangles,” N. D. Mermin,
Am. J. Phys. 66, 1077–1080 (1998);

“Visualizing proper-time in Special Relativity”, Roberto B. Salgado,
Phys. Teach. (Indian Physical Society), 46, 132–143 (2004);
available at

Tips to a faster computer

Does your computer feel slower than it used to be? Does it take longer to start up or for programs to load? If so, chances are your computer has accumulated some “digital dust” and needs a little spring cleaning.
To better understand what causes your computer to slow down over time (and what you can do about it), here are ten sources of “digital dust.” The tips are based on a blog post Agent Wiebusch did a couple years ago on reasons your computer may be running slow. I have updated the advice a bit.
1) Too many programs running at the same time.Over the lifespan of a computer it is common for users to download programs, applications and other data that ends up “running in the background.” Many of these programs start automatically and you may not be aware they are open. The more things that run in the background, the less “attention span” your computer has to do other things you are asking it to do. Here are instructions for viewing programs running on your Windows machine. If you are using a Mac, these are some instructions for seeing what’s running on your device.
Try to avoid downloading too many web browser-helpers like internet-search bars, programs that claim to “speed up” your internet or your computer, or multiple anti-malware programs. One or two may be fine, but too many will result in slow performance. Uninstall programs that you do not use. Once this deadwood is trimmed, you may notice you machine has become more responsive.
2) Not enough free RAM.“RAM” is what your computer uses for temporary working and thinking space. The more you have the merrier your computer will be. If you look back to reason 1 in this article and have determined you need all those programs running, perhaps your computer doesn’t have enough RAM to do that effectively. The hard drive inside your computer may make a lot of noise, accompanied by slow operation, if you are out of RAM.
RAM is a piece of hardware that can be added to your machine. Four gigabytes (4GB) is the least you want in newer computers, but the rule of thumb is to add as much as is affordable for you.
3) Virus/Malware infection.Virus or malware programs running in the background can divert your computer’s attention away from what you want it to do. Internet slowdowns and general slow operation of the entire computer can be one of the symptoms of an infection. You should have the computer scanned for a malware infection to determine if this is the cause. We have a free virus and spyware scanner available from our website.
4) Low hard drive space.This generally applies to older computers. Hard drives, which store all of your computer’s information, only have a finite amount of space. Once filled up the computer no longer has the ability to manipulate your files. The computer will slow down, eventually becoming unusable.
Generally, Windows will alert you to “low disk space” if this is the case. Moving some of your less-used files such as pictures, music, and movies to an external hard drive would be a viable solution to regaining hard drive space. You can usually install a bigger hard drive as well. Deleting temporary files and performing a disk cleanup are also good ways to reclaim wasted space.
5) Due for a restart.So, this computer has not been restarted in…um, I don’t know how long. Yes, every once in a while it is a good idea to restart your computer. Some updates cannot be completed until you restart. In addition, restarting your computer can free up some resources that could be getting bogged down by buggy programs.
6) Sharing a wireless network.“My internet is slow, but the computer is running fast!” There are many possible reasons this can be happening. If you are on a wireless network, check to see if anyone else on your wireless is streaming video, downloading music or playing online games. Those activities tend to suck up a lot of bandwidth. You should also make sure your wireless network is secure so someone else isn’t stealing your internet bandwidth. Wireless network security is your first line of defense against fraudsters and you should make sure you network is password-protected..
7) Too many bells and whistles.
Sure, that animated pointer and hi-resolution image of your favorite supercar look nice, but those kind of things can also slow your computer down. Animations and images must be loaded into memory every time you start your PC, leaving less memory available for other, more important tasks.
8 ) Scanning programs running.
Check to make sure your antivirus program, anti-spyware program or automatic backup program is not the reason for the slowdown. If it is, I suggest you wait it out. Usually this type of activity is a necessity. Manufacturers of these types of software try to make everyday operations unobtrusive to you. There are times, however, when an update must be done or scanning must take place. Your computer will be a little slow to respond to you when this is happening.
Remember it is not necessary to scan your entire computer every single day for viruses and spyware. Once per week should be fine. The same applies for data backups. A complete system backup doesn’t need to run every single day for the average home user.
9) Not meeting software requirements.
Software usually has a list of requirements called out in the product description or other accompanying literature. Things such as processor speed, operating system, memory (RAM), hard drive space, and minimum video card requirements usual appear with the product description somewhere. Please note that these are minimum requirements. These specifications are the absolute minimum to make the software run. Run it will – run well it may not. Try and meet or surpass the system “recommendations” of your software, not just barely make the “requirements.”
10) A “fragmented” hard drive.
This is becoming less of an issue with newer computers, but if you have an older PC it is worth a mention. Perhaps your hard drive needs a “defrag.”
Imagine a jigsaw puzzle. Computers like to store pieces of a file together, like a completed puzzle. Over time, with normal use these pieces can get scattered all over the hard drive; Similar to when your puzzle first came out of the box. The computer has to look to find all the pieces before it can access the file. This is not a problem if only a few files are fragmented. Once multiplied over several thousand files, however, we have a cumulative slowdown of your computer. Defragmenting your hard drive organizes all these pieces and puts them back together again.

Free Astronomy Books

Free Astronomy Books – Primarily for education.

Feel free to add your own links to free books. Let me know if there are broken links or copyright issues.

Reference to

GIGABYTE X99 SOC Champion 6950X Broadwell-E Overclocking Guide

GIGABYTE X99 SOC Champion OC Guide (Broadwell E Update)

1. SINGLE BIOS mode: make sure you turn it ON (position 2). This switch will disable Dual bios mode in case it triggers a bios switch or update due to OC fail.

2. This CPU_Mode switch is ONLY required for 5960X (Haswell-E) and it is not required for Broadwell-E (6950X). We suggest that you leave it in DEFAULT position (position 1)

3. POWER DRAW: Our testing has shown that Broadwell-E draws less power than Haswell-E, despite the fact it has a higher amount of cores. This is welcome news as some PSUs were having problems with OCP shutdown as power draw exceeded the Amp draw limit on 12V rail. This may still be happening on PSUs of lesser quality or with aggressive OCP spec. We recommend discussing with peers what PSUs to use for extreme OC.

4. CB (Cold Bug) & CBB (Cold Boot Bug) changes: From our experience testing 6950X CPUs, we’ve seen very similar behaviour with CB and CBB overall. CB is generally between -95C and -110C. CBB is more CPU specific and can sometimes be same as CB but mostly ranges around -90C.

Some tips: Find your CB and CBB first and test it a few times. Once you have a rough idea, it will make it a lot smoother to bench your CPU. Here are some post LED codes to watch out for:

· Post Code “bF”: When you restart and you see post code “bF”, switch off PSU and let all power drain from board before switching PSU back on, start again. Most times it will boot straight back up and you are ready to go. However, you may see post code 91!

· Post Code “91”: Switch PSU off if you see this post code, let power drain from board (you will see power LED light turn off on board so there is no residual power in the board), switch PSU back on and hit start and go. Sometimes you may need to go warmer than your regular CBB (i.e from -90C to -80C) to avoid post code 91.

· Post Code “BLANK”: This is generally CBB (no post code showing at all). Just turn off PSU, warm up below CBB temp (try -80C) and turn on.

This is simply a guide and may not be the case with your CPU so it is advisable to test the limits of your chips specifically.

5. Voltage Changes, Limits and Frequencies: We are going to talk about 4 categories, core voltage, uncore voltage, memory voltage and voltage limits

· Core Voltage: Air cooling 4GHz, you are looking at around 1.2vcore. We tested up to 1.35vcore with benchmarks such as XTU and found CPUs were mainly running below throttling temperature and frequency of up to 4.4GHz.

LN2 cooling we find that it’s best to start with 1.5v at -60C and go colder. Most CPUs will like 1.55vcore with -80 to -110C. Some chips will scale higher with 1.6v-1.7v but majority we tested stop scaling up to 1.6vcore. Majority of CPUs did 5GHz, great CPUs did 5.2GHz and special chips will go beyond 5.3GHz with Cinebench R15. This may change with new retail batches.

VRIN is another voltage you need to use (up to 2V on air and generally 2.2v LN2). 2.6v can kill CPUs so be careful.

PLL TRIM is the last one to look out for. Use +15. Improves OC performance and stability.

LLC (load line calibration), set to Extreme (refer to screenshot below for full settings).

· Uncore Voltage: This voltage has changed compared to Haswell-E. There are two voltages that affect uncore/cache frequency. One is “VRING” and other is “VccU Offset”.

Air testing showed that uncore will scale to 3.75GHz roughly using up to 1.40VRING and +0.25 VccU Offset. You don’t really need high VccU offset for air or LN2, +0.25 is generally enough for majority of CPUs.

LN2 testing showed that uncore will scale to 4.6GHz roughly using a mix of voltage and correct temperature. In terms of voltage, we could see uncore scaling up to 1.6VRING and we use +0.25 VccU Offset. You can try higher voltages and see if it helps with your CPU. Temperature is very important with uncore. You must be cold enough to boot at very high uncore clocks (-80C or colder). We recommend booting at lower uncore and using GTL to clock up core and uncore frequency in OS.

Post Code tips: If you see the post code looping after restart and board suddenly shuts down, that usually means the uncore is too high for that boot which will either need colder temp or bios reset and reloading profile. You may see postcodes such as “b0”, “bF”, “b2” but it might be others as well.

· Memory Voltage: We will specifically refer to B-die based memory ICs here as they have shown to be best for extreme OC. There are two different volts (VSA & memory volts) you need to use to clock memory well as well as memory voltage training.

VSA voltage is generally recommended in +0.25 to +0.35v.

Memory voltage we generally use 1.6v for 3000MHz 12-12-12-28. For 3400MHz and higher, we use 1.7-1.75v. CPU must be cold (use -80C or higher).

· Voltage Limits: CPUs did not really scale past 1.7vcore. Uncore voltage did not really scale past 1.6v on most CPUs. Memory voltage we suggest keeping below 1.8. Offset voltage and VSA are not needed any higher than previously shown. These are extreme limits and you must find out what your CPU and memory like. If you use too high a volts, you will probably lose max MHz frequency. Best to find the ideal volts for your hardware!

6. Post Code LED tips: Please check point 4. & 5. for some tips. We will also provide some additional info for various memory related post code troubleshooting below:

· Post Code “61”: Overtightening CPU pot can cause this post code. This can also be pure memory frequency or vdimm limitation. If a RAM slot is wet, it can also show 61.

· Post Code “50”: System not detecting memory correctly due to dirt in dimm slot or not inserted properly. Tight timings limitation can also show this code.

· Post Code “91”: Uncore too high, CPU too cold

· Post Code “8A”: 1T unstable, too high VTT termination volts, RTL incorrect

· Post Code “bF”: memory wet

7. CPU temperature, paste, correct mount and stability: Make sure you have a stable mount when you are overclocking. You will find that once you start to push high frequency and volts that your paste may not work correctly and can become unstable and previously stable frequency. Best way to OC is to use a staggered approach where you start with 4.5GHz profile, 4.8, 5 , 5.2 with specific volts and temp ranges. If you crash at any stage, you probably “lost your mount”. Essentially your paste snapped and is not conducting heat properly between CPU HS and CPU pot. One way you can detect this is via a delta probe (keep one temperature probe on HS and second on CPU pot). Quick way to fix this is to turn off system and cool down to -25C and then quickly bring back temps down to cold and start. 90% if the time, you will be able to clock high again but may not be able to get max clocks until full paste remount (full CPU pot warm up, paste replacement etc)

8. B-die memory screenshots

9. GIGABYTE Tweak Launcher (GTL):

Download link:

10. BIOS: You don’t need a special bios for extreme overclocking. Download the latest bios from here

Haswell-E (5960X, 5930K, 5820K) OC Guide

11. Voltages for Uncore (make sure CPU_Mode switch is turned to ENABLE (position 2)
In the CPU Advanced Voltages when you have switched to the OC mode you will see some extra voltages. VL1 to VL6.

You only have to change VL4, VL5 and VL6 as below.

The voltage you have to change to get higher uncore is mostly the VL6. Almost all the CPUs can do 1.45V, most of the CPUs can do 1.5V but some CPUs can do even higher Voltage. There are few CPUs that boot with lower than 1.45V though. If the CPU can do high VL6 then probably it can do and high Uncore but not all the times. It depends on the CPU. In the OS through GTL all you have to do is to raise the VRING to 1.45V-1.5V in able to get high Uncore.

12. RTLs.
You can change the RTLs but not manually only changing the IOLs manually.
IOLs to 1 will bring the RTLs all the way down to what the board is capable of until now.
You need to change the IOLs at every channel. Set the option at manual mode and change the primary and secondary timings only for channel A and then change the IOLs to each channel manually.

13. Use both 8pin and 4pin cables for CPU Power otherwise with heavy load the system maybe will be shutting down.

14. You don’t need extremely high VSA and VDIMM. VSA between +0.25-0.35V should be enough to drive the mems high. +0.25-+0.3V should max your mems on most cases. VDIMM 1.55-1.65V is ok. I was able to do even C11 with 1.6V.

15. Few times you will see codes like 72, 74, 50, 51, 60, 8A. Try to press the reset button few times. There’re times that doing it it passes the training. Especially when you change the RTLs and you get 8A try it for sure. It doesn’t happen on latest bios so often.

16. X99 MemTweak, GTL

Highest bootable VL6 cannot be overridden through software. Same value that your CPU won’t boot from bios if you set it through software it will shut down.

17. Please be careful! The VLs can affect your CPU cold bug so make sure that when you change you don’t hit the cold bug earlier than before. If you have this problem try higher or lower VL3 (usually higher helps). If VL3 doesn’t fix your problem then try the same for VL6.
Also, different bclk affects the cold bug too, so try this as well. Almost all the CPUs are ok with 127.5 bclk and PCI3.

18. Make sure that you’re using proper insulation around the memories area and also put some paper towel around the PCH cooler. The way that worked best for us was a layer of plastidip, then a layer of Vaseline and paper towel.

19. Always save a profile before you save and exit cause most of the times the only way to go back is the CMOS button.

20. For memory voltage we used up to 1.9V on single sided dimms on LN2 without a problem. But it doesn’t mean that all the dimms can handle it so be careful in case you don’t want to degrade or kill your memories. Dino was benching with 1.8V without any issue.