- Increased cooldown reduction
- Increased armor
- Increased health regen
- Decreased mana regen
- Speed up around towers & gates
MELEE — USE IT
KNOW WHEN TO SWITCH
USE YOUR ULTIMATES
Everybody wants to get play of the game but not everybody wants to put in the work to come out with a victory. Use your ultimates when you have them, not only when it’s convenient for a spectacular show. Every elimination counts, and sometimes when you can’t reload and you have an ultimate when playing one-on-one, that ultimate will keep you alive. So use it. Time spent running around with an ultimate in your pocket is time wasted that could be spent loading another ultimate to use. Just keep calm and use your ultimates when you have them and you’re teammates will thank you for staying alive and adding a kill.
- ‘Learn Python the Hard Way’ by Zed Shaw, available for free here
- Code Academy, which offers free courses on many languages with an easy to follow, gamified learning system.
- Google’s Python Class
- Github – a repository for programmers to store and share their open source code with the world. Worth a rummage to find beginners’ projects, figure out what others are up to, or just see what kinds of things are possible
The spacetime diagram (“a position vs time graph”) is a valuable tool for modeling and interpreting situations in relativity. As I like to say, “A spacetime diagram is worth a thousand words.” Many problems and “apparent-paradoxes” (or better “puzzles”) can be resolved by drawing a good spacetime diagram. However, because Minkowski spacetime geometry is not Euclidean, there is a hurdle to interpreting the spacetime diagram. As Alfred Schild eloquently stated,
“When it comes to metrical concepts, our Euclidean intuition is no longer valid in space-time—it cannot be trusted. Here we have to re-educate our intuition and learn to think in terms of new pictures. Thus, equal lengths in Minkowski geometry will not look equal, right angles will not look like right angles.”
(Side comment: Before we get into special relativity, it is worth noting that PHY 101’s “position vs time graph” also has a underlying geometry that is not Euclidean. However, practically everybody has learned to read the position-vs-time graph—without knowing anything about this geometry. To help students better understand special relativity, we may have to become more aware of this geometry… but that’s a story for another day.)
Where are the tickmarks?
Although we may be given the tickmarks of the inertial observer drawing the spacetime diagram, a common question is “how does one know where to mark off the ticks of another observer’s clock and meterstick?” More precisely, “given a standard of time marked on an observer’s worldline, how does one calibrate the same standard on the other observer’s worldline?”
Traditionally, this is answered algebraically using the Lorentz Transformation formulas… which is rather abstract for a novice. Geometrically, one may use two-observer diagrams or hyperbolic graph paper—which are rather restrictive. [We use the usual conventions where the time axis is vertical and where the units are chosen so that light signals are drawn at 45 degrees.] The two-observer diagram can only accommodate two frames of reference, and the diagram must be prepared for the velocity of the “moving” frame (here, <span class="MathJax" data-mathml="vBob=3/5″ id=”MathJax-Element-1-Frame” role=”presentation” style=”position: relative;” tabindex=”0″>vBob=3/5vBob=3/5). The hyperbolic graph paper can handle more general velocities, but distinguishes the meeting event at the “origin”. For simple problems, either of these is probably sufficient. But what features are they emphasizing? Are these unnecessarily complicated? Unnecessarily expensive?
Rotated Graph Paper.
The grid lines are aligned with the light cones in spacetime. So, light signals are easier to draw.
But how do we get the 4 ticks along Bob’s worldline that we get from the other graph papers? The paper uses a physical argument based on the Doppler Effect and Bondi’s k-calculus. Here, we will use a geometrical argument (also found in the paper).
Diagramming Alice’s ticking Light Clock with “Clock Diamonds”
We begin the construction by interpreting the unit boxes in the rotated grid. Consider an inertial observer, Alice, at rest in her reference frame, carrying a mirror a constant distance away. Alice emits a light flash (traveling with speed c) that reflects off the distant mirror and returns (at speed c) to her after a round-trip elapsed time. If this returning light flash is immediately reflected back, this functions like a clock, called the light clock.
On the rotated grid, we draw the spacetime diagram of Alice and two such mirrors, one to the right (the direction in which Alice faces) and the other to the left. The parallelogram OMTN represents one tick of Alice’s longitudinal light clock, where the spatial trajectories of the light signals are parallel to the direction of relative motion. Henceforth, we will refer to this parallelogram as Alice’s “clock diamond.”
By tiling spacetime with copies of her clock diamond, Alice sets up a coordinate system. She measures displacements in time along a parallel to her worldline (along diagonal OT, which happens to be vertical on our rotated grid). She measures displacements in space along her “line of constant time” (parallel to diagonal MN, which happens to be horizontal on our rotated grid). According to Alice, events M and N are simultaneous. Lightlike displacements are measured parallel to the edges of her clock diamond.
Building Bob’s Clock Diamonds
Now consider another inertial observer Bob. For convenience, suppose <span class="MathJax" data-mathml="vBob=3/5″ id=”MathJax-Element-2-Frame” role=”presentation” style=”position: relative;” tabindex=”0″>vBob=3/5vBob=3/5.
How should Bob’s light clock and clock diamonds be drawn?
This is the Calibration Problem.
Given Alice’s worldline and one tick of Alice’s clock (clock diamond OMTN), how should one draw event F on Bob’s worldline so that timelike segment OF corresponds to one tick on Bob’s clock (clock diamond OYFZ)?
Bob’s clock diamond OYFZ
has the same area as
Alice’s clock diamond OMTN.
Geometrically, this is because events T and F lie on a hyperbola centered at O with asymptotes along the light cone of O. (Refer to the paper for physical arguments based on the Doppler Effect and Bondi’s k-calculus.)
By subdividing the grid (into, say, a 6 x 6 subgrid) and drawing analogous clock diamonds with the same area, you can glimpse the unit hyperbola.
The velocity of a clock in this spacetime diagram is encoded by the width-to-height “aspect ratio” of its clock diamond. So, for Bob, we have:
Note that events Y and Z of Bob’s clock diamond OYFZ are simultaneous for Bob—but not for Alice. This is the “relativity of simultaneity.” In the geometry of the spacetime diagram, diagonal YZ is [spacetime-]perpendicular to diagonal OF, even though it may not look so to a Euclidean eye.
Visualizing Time Dilation and the Clock Effect (Twin Paradox)
With Bob’s clock diamonds determined, we can now construct the 4 ticks along Bob’s worldline that one obtains in the two-observer graph paper and hyperbolic graph paper. This triangle visualizes “time dilation”: Bob determines the elapsed time from O to Q (events on his worldline) to be 4 ticks, whereas Alice determines the elapsed time from O to distant event Q (Q, not on her worldline) to be 5 ticks.
(Side comment: We have highlighted a parallelogram in the grid with diagonal OQ, which we refer to as the “causal diamond” of OQ. The area of that causal diamond is equal to the square of the time interval from O to Q. This suggests another, more powerful method to construct Bob’s clock diamonds if we know that OQ is along Bob’s worldline. Refer to the paper for details.)
We can easily extend this diagram to visualize the “clock effect”, featured in the so-called twin paradox. Inertial observer Alice stays at home and logs 10 ticks between separation and reunion events O and Z, whereas Bob (a piecewise-inertial—but now a non-inertial—observer since he momentarily accelerated at Q to turn around and return to Alice) logs 4+4=8 ticks from events O to Z via Q, not on inertial segment OZ.
Note that there are three inertial reference frames displayed here: Alice, outbound-Bob, and inbound-Bob. This is not easily constructed on the two-observer graph paper or on the hyperbolic graph paper, especially if Bob’s inbound speed if different from Bob’s outbound speed. (Note that the subdivided grid which displayed a glimpse of the unit hyperbola displayed clock diamonds for nine inertial reference frames.)
Hopefully this construction makes it easier to draw, interpret, and calculate with spacetime diagrams. So, let’s draw them! Refer to the paper for details of this method, other textbook examples (length contraction, velocity composition, elastic collisions), and its relation to other methods (radar methods, Bondi k-calculus, Robb’s formula, standard textbook formulas).
“Relativity on rotated graph paper,” Roberto B. Salgado,
Am. J. Phys. 84, 344-359 (2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.4943251
[see also the references within]
“The Clock Paradox in Relativity Theory,” Alfred Schild,
Am. Math. Monthly, 66, 1-18 (Jan., 1959); http://www.jstor.org/stable/2309916
Relativity and Common Sense, Hermann Bondi (Dover, 1962).
“Space-time intervals as light rectangles,” N. D. Mermin,
Am. J. Phys. 66, 1077–1080 (1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19047
Phys. Teach. (Indian Physical Society), 46, 132–143 (2004);
available at http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0505134
Free Astronomy Books – Primarily for education.
Feel free to add your own links to free books. Let me know if there are broken links or copyright issues.
- A New Astronomy
- A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century, Fourth Edition
- A Simple Guide to Backyard Astronomy
- Advances in Modern Cosmology
- Astronomical Discovery
- Astronomy for Amateurs
- Astronomy To-Day
- Astronomy of To-day A Popular Introduction in Non-Technical Language
- Astronomy With an Opera-Glass
- Basic Positional Astronomy
- Black-Hole Phenomenology
- Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting
- Curiosities of the Sky
- Elementary Mathematical Astronomy
- Elements of Astrophysics
- Encyclopedia of Astrophysics
- Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs
- Frequently Asked Questions about Calendars
- Great Astronomers
- History of Astronomy
- Introduction to Cosmology
- Lectures on Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
- Pioneers of Science
- Practical Astronomy
- Practical Astronomy for Engineers
- Primer Of Celestial Navigation
- Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Volume 1
- Observing the Sky from 30S
- Mag 7 Star Atlas Project
- Mysteries of the Sun
- Some Basic Principles from Astronomy
- Star-Gazer’s Hand-Book
- Supernova Remnants: The X-ray Perspective
- Recreations in Astronomy
- Short History of Astronomy
- The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge
- The Astronomy and the Bible
- The Astronomy of the Bible: An Elementary Commentary on the Astronomical References of Holy Scripture
- The Beginning and the End
- The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Sun
- The Geology of Terrestrial Planets
- The Moon: A Full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features
- The Planet Mars
- The Story of Eclipses
- The Story of the Heavens
- The World According to the Hubble Space Telescope
- The Zij as-Sanjari of Gregory Chioniades (June 27, 2009)
1. SINGLE BIOS mode: make sure you turn it ON (position 2). This switch will disable Dual bios mode in case it triggers a bios switch or update due to OC fail.
2. This CPU_Mode switch is ONLY required for 5960X (Haswell-E) and it is not required for Broadwell-E (6950X). We suggest that you leave it in DEFAULT position (position 1)
3. POWER DRAW: Our testing has shown that Broadwell-E draws less power than Haswell-E, despite the fact it has a higher amount of cores. This is welcome news as some PSUs were having problems with OCP shutdown as power draw exceeded the Amp draw limit on 12V rail. This may still be happening on PSUs of lesser quality or with aggressive OCP spec. We recommend discussing with peers what PSUs to use for extreme OC.
4. CB (Cold Bug) & CBB (Cold Boot Bug) changes: From our experience testing 6950X CPUs, we’ve seen very similar behaviour with CB and CBB overall. CB is generally between -95C and -110C. CBB is more CPU specific and can sometimes be same as CB but mostly ranges around -90C.
Some tips: Find your CB and CBB first and test it a few times. Once you have a rough idea, it will make it a lot smoother to bench your CPU. Here are some post LED codes to watch out for:
· Post Code “bF”: When you restart and you see post code “bF”, switch off PSU and let all power drain from board before switching PSU back on, start again. Most times it will boot straight back up and you are ready to go. However, you may see post code 91!
· Post Code “91”: Switch PSU off if you see this post code, let power drain from board (you will see power LED light turn off on board so there is no residual power in the board), switch PSU back on and hit start and go. Sometimes you may need to go warmer than your regular CBB (i.e from -90C to -80C) to avoid post code 91.
· Post Code “BLANK”: This is generally CBB (no post code showing at all). Just turn off PSU, warm up below CBB temp (try -80C) and turn on.
5. Voltage Changes, Limits and Frequencies: We are going to talk about 4 categories, core voltage, uncore voltage, memory voltage and voltage limits
· Core Voltage: Air cooling 4GHz, you are looking at around 1.2vcore. We tested up to 1.35vcore with benchmarks such as XTU and found CPUs were mainly running below throttling temperature and frequency of up to 4.4GHz.
LN2 cooling we find that it’s best to start with 1.5v at -60C and go colder. Most CPUs will like 1.55vcore with -80 to -110C. Some chips will scale higher with 1.6v-1.7v but majority we tested stop scaling up to 1.6vcore. Majority of CPUs did 5GHz, great CPUs did 5.2GHz and special chips will go beyond 5.3GHz with Cinebench R15. This may change with new retail batches.
VRIN is another voltage you need to use (up to 2V on air and generally 2.2v LN2). 2.6v can kill CPUs so be careful.
PLL TRIM is the last one to look out for. Use +15. Improves OC performance and stability.
· Uncore Voltage: This voltage has changed compared to Haswell-E. There are two voltages that affect uncore/cache frequency. One is “VRING” and other is “VccU Offset”.
Air testing showed that uncore will scale to 3.75GHz roughly using up to 1.40VRING and +0.25 VccU Offset. You don’t really need high VccU offset for air or LN2, +0.25 is generally enough for majority of CPUs.
LN2 testing showed that uncore will scale to 4.6GHz roughly using a mix of voltage and correct temperature. In terms of voltage, we could see uncore scaling up to 1.6VRING and we use +0.25 VccU Offset. You can try higher voltages and see if it helps with your CPU. Temperature is very important with uncore. You must be cold enough to boot at very high uncore clocks (-80C or colder). We recommend booting at lower uncore and using GTL to clock up core and uncore frequency in OS.
Post Code tips: If you see the post code looping after restart and board suddenly shuts down, that usually means the uncore is too high for that boot which will either need colder temp or bios reset and reloading profile. You may see postcodes such as “b0”, “bF”, “b2” but it might be others as well.
· Memory Voltage: We will specifically refer to B-die based memory ICs here as they have shown to be best for extreme OC. There are two different volts (VSA & memory volts) you need to use to clock memory well as well as memory voltage training.
VSA voltage is generally recommended in +0.25 to +0.35v.
Memory voltage we generally use 1.6v for 3000MHz 12-12-12-28. For 3400MHz and higher, we use 1.7-1.75v. CPU must be cold (use -80C or higher).
· Voltage Limits: CPUs did not really scale past 1.7vcore. Uncore voltage did not really scale past 1.6v on most CPUs. Memory voltage we suggest keeping below 1.8. Offset voltage and VSA are not needed any higher than previously shown. These are extreme limits and you must find out what your CPU and memory like. If you use too high a volts, you will probably lose max MHz frequency. Best to find the ideal volts for your hardware!
· Post Code “61”: Overtightening CPU pot can cause this post code. This can also be pure memory frequency or vdimm limitation. If a RAM slot is wet, it can also show 61.
· Post Code “50”: System not detecting memory correctly due to dirt in dimm slot or not inserted properly. Tight timings limitation can also show this code.
· Post Code “91”: Uncore too high, CPU too cold
· Post Code “8A”: 1T unstable, too high VTT termination volts, RTL incorrect
· Post Code “bF”: memory wet
7. CPU temperature, paste, correct mount and stability: Make sure you have a stable mount when you are overclocking. You will find that once you start to push high frequency and volts that your paste may not work correctly and can become unstable and previously stable frequency. Best way to OC is to use a staggered approach where you start with 4.5GHz profile, 4.8, 5 , 5.2 with specific volts and temp ranges. If you crash at any stage, you probably “lost your mount”. Essentially your paste snapped and is not conducting heat properly between CPU HS and CPU pot. One way you can detect this is via a delta probe (keep one temperature probe on HS and second on CPU pot). Quick way to fix this is to turn off system and cool down to -25C and then quickly bring back temps down to cold and start. 90% if the time, you will be able to clock high again but may not be able to get max clocks until full paste remount (full CPU pot warm up, paste replacement etc)
8. B-die memory screenshots
9. GIGABYTE Tweak Launcher (GTL):
10. BIOS: You don’t need a special bios for extreme overclocking. Download the latest bios from here
11. Voltages for Uncore (make sure CPU_Mode switch is turned to ENABLE (position 2)
In the CPU Advanced Voltages when you have switched to the OC mode you will see some extra voltages. VL1 to VL6.
You only have to change VL4, VL5 and VL6 as below.
The voltage you have to change to get higher uncore is mostly the VL6. Almost all the CPUs can do 1.45V, most of the CPUs can do 1.5V but some CPUs can do even higher Voltage. There are few CPUs that boot with lower than 1.45V though. If the CPU can do high VL6 then probably it can do and high Uncore but not all the times. It depends on the CPU. In the OS through GTL all you have to do is to raise the VRING to 1.45V-1.5V in able to get high Uncore.
You can change the RTLs but not manually only changing the IOLs manually.
IOLs to 1 will bring the RTLs all the way down to what the board is capable of until now.
You need to change the IOLs at every channel. Set the option at manual mode and change the primary and secondary timings only for channel A and then change the IOLs to each channel manually.
13. Use both 8pin and 4pin cables for CPU Power otherwise with heavy load the system maybe will be shutting down.
14. You don’t need extremely high VSA and VDIMM. VSA between +0.25-0.35V should be enough to drive the mems high. +0.25-+0.3V should max your mems on most cases. VDIMM 1.55-1.65V is ok. I was able to do even C11 with 1.6V.
15. Few times you will see codes like 72, 74, 50, 51, 60, 8A. Try to press the reset button few times. There’re times that doing it it passes the training. Especially when you change the RTLs and you get 8A try it for sure. It doesn’t happen on latest bios so often.
Highest bootable VL6 cannot be overridden through software. Same value that your CPU won’t boot from bios if you set it through software it will shut down.
17. Please be careful! The VLs can affect your CPU cold bug so make sure that when you change you don’t hit the cold bug earlier than before. If you have this problem try higher or lower VL3 (usually higher helps). If VL3 doesn’t fix your problem then try the same for VL6.
Also, different bclk affects the cold bug too, so try this as well. Almost all the CPUs are ok with 127.5 bclk and PCI3.
18. Make sure that you’re using proper insulation around the memories area and also put some paper towel around the PCH cooler. The way that worked best for us was a layer of plastidip, then a layer of Vaseline and paper towel.
19. Always save a profile before you save and exit cause most of the times the only way to go back is the CMOS button.
20. For memory voltage we used up to 1.9V on single sided dimms on LN2 without a problem. But it doesn’t mean that all the dimms can handle it so be careful in case you don’t want to degrade or kill your memories. Dino was benching with 1.8V without any issue.